Terms and Definitions
Benefits of Forging for Finished Metal Component Parts
Definitions and terms of custom industrial forging for finished metal component parts, for original equipment manufacturers (OEM)
Industrial forging creates parts that are stronger than either casting or machining them. The metal, having been pounded into a shape, creates a grain flow that follows that shape resulting in a stronger part.
Cold Forging -- room temperature forging
Cold forging requires less heat, but more force. Since there is no cooling involved, the finished part is more precise.
Warm Forging --
temperature between Cold and Hot
Hot Forging -- high temperature
Hot forging is easier and less likely to crack the part, but can be less precise as the part cools to room temperature.
Open Die or Drop Hammer Forging
Open die or drop hammer forging application requires the use of a heavy hammer impacting the metal which is placed on an anvil and is not surrounded by the die. This process is ideal for short runs.
Impression Die or Closed Die Forging
Impression die or closed die forging uses a die mounted on the hammer as well as the anvil. The metal is placed in the die on the anvil and struck with the die on the hammer causing the metal to fill the die. This may require a series of dies to accomplish a finished component part, but forgings become more economical for longer runs.
Press forging actually presses the metal into a desired shape in a slower process compressing the metal inside the piece as well, rather than a drop hammer which compresses the exterior of the peice, leaving the interior relactively unchanged. This process may cause cracking, but the trade off is that it may also be accomplished in one pressing which may be automated.
Upset forging, being ideal for very large runs, is accomplished with a series of horizontal dies in an automated procedure. This process begins with a long piece of metal and increases its diameter, upsetting the piece from die to die in a series of dies.
Definitions and terms for custom industrial forging: